Type 1 and type 2
Misconceptions: Type 1 diabetes is not caused by eating too much sugar. It is not preventible and there is no convincing evidence for diet as a cause of the disease. The pancreas stops producing insulin and the person has to take lifelong daily insulin injectons, with a modified diet and exercise.
Obesity is a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The target cells of the body becomes resistant to insulin and saturated fat may contribute to development of Type 2 diabetes. People who were malnourished when they were in their mother's womb, have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It is not caused by consumption of excess sugar.
Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed by:
Moderate daily physical exercise
Weight loss of obese people(5-10%)
Low fat, high fibre diet
Medications that lower cell insulin resistance
Coffee may reduce the risk, although caffeine is not the effective ingredient
Main aim of managing diabetes:
Good control of blood glucose levels
Poor control of blood glucose levels may lead to blindness, kidney failure, atherosclerosis, heart attacks stroke and erectile dysfunction.
It can be monitored by:
Finger prick blood glucose checks
Measurement of haemoglobin A1c every 3 months
Hypoglycemia is the problem for people with type 1 diabetes. Those on insulin injections is recommended to get insulin pumps to match the amount of carbohydrate eaten.
Peopel with type 2 diabetes can improve their glycaemic control by losing some weight. It is recommended to follow the health guidelines to lose weight.
Eating regular spaced meals throughout the day can help keep blood glucose within normal ranges. Skipping meals can lead to hypoglycemia and the next meal will likely be a larger one due to hunger. This will cause hyperglycemia.
Type 1 will need 3 meals( B,L,D) plus 3 snacks in moring,afternoon and supper) each day
Type 2 will also need 3 meals. If patient is on insulin, may need a snack at supper to prevent hypo overnight.
A person should not cut down on their Carbo intake to control BGLs( if consuming appropriate amounts), instead they should have their insulin increased.They are encouraged to have a variety of high fibre food such as fruits, vege , and whole grain. Alcohol may cause hypo and salt should be reduced or eliminated.
Another alternative diet is medium-carbo, medium-fat. Most Australians would eat a moderate carbo, with more energy from fat, ideally from monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, with saturated fat providing 7% of energy.
People with complications such as kidney failure will not follow exactly the information here. Nutritional requirements vary.